Information About Peru
Peru is a pluricultural and biodiverse country, which is divided into three coastal, mountain and jungle regions, Peru is well known because it maintains its deep cultural roots planted in the Inca civilization.
Such as the landscapes, sounds, colors, climates, traditions, cultures, languages and flavors that make it a very interesting destination when choosing a place to spend a vacation. And for nature lovers who will be impressed because, if they choose to travel to Peru, they are about to travel back in time where you will find ancient civilizations and great ancestral traces.
Peru has two chains, the highest tropical mountain range in the world, the Cordillera Blanca, and the Huayhuash Mountain Range considered one of the most spectacular trekking circuits in the world.
These two mountain ranges are located very close in the northern center of the country. They are unmissable scenarios for hiking, mountaineering and other adventure sports.
This fascinating trip to Perú takes us to the geography, culture and history of Perú, a country that offers a fascinating combination of guided tours and free time to explore at your own pace.
You will have the opportunity to walk through the Cordillera Huayhuash, the White Mountain range in the Andes of Perú.
How to get?
In general, Lima is the gateway to Peru through Jorge Chávez Airport, with direct flights and connections to the main cities of the world, and from here, you can start your tours to all the cities in the interior of the country, to discover and enjoy all the tourist attractions of this millenary land, of living cultures.
Data of Peru
Country Name: Republic of Peru.
Population: 29, 885,340 inhabitants.
Capital: Lima, one of the metropolis of America, where modernity is perfectly combined with a grand past full of tradition.
Form of Government: Democratic Republic.
President: Martin Vizcarra.
Languages: the official languages that predominate are the (Spanish 80.3% and Quechua 16.2%), the Aymara, as well as a variety of dialects in the jungle.
Currency: The Sol S /. (Change: $ 1.00 = S /. 3.40)
Religion: Catholics 89.03%, Evangelicals 6.73% other religions 2.56%, and no religion 1.65%.
Ethnic Groups: the Peruvian race is composed of Amerindians 45%, mestizos 37%, Europeans 15%, Africans 3% and Asia
Gastronomy: the richness of its lands and its cultural diversity make Peru a country of exquisite and varied gastronomy. Each city has a typical dish with an unparalleled flavor. Thousands of products from the countryside and dozens of living cultures, which for centuries have shared a single territory, ended up creating an infinite supply, where only the palate must choose.
Emergency Calls: the phone numbers to call in case of emergency are 105 for the police, 117 for an ambulance and 116 for a fire.
Geography of Peru
Location of Peru: it is located in the central and western part of South America. Bordering the Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador.
Area: 1’285,216 square kilometers.
Limits: Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia and Chile.
Perú is divided into 25 regions: Amazonas, Arequipa, Ancash, Ayacucho, Apurimac, Cusco, Cajamarca, Callao, Huanuco, Huancavelica, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Puno, Piura, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes and Ucayali.
Natural Characteristics: it has three natural regions, according to the shape and relief of the country: coast, mountains and jungle.
The coastal region, predominantly desert, contains many of Peru’s major cities and attractions including Lima (the capital of Peru), Pisco, Trujillo, Paracas, the Nazca lines, and the famous Pan-American Highway (Carretera Panamericana). Bird and marine life is abundant in this region; you can find colonies of sea lions sunbathing, Peruvian pelicans looking for fresh fish, Chilean flamingos, Humboldt penguins, Inca Terns, and the Brown Booby.
Mountains in Peru can be divided into two regions: the Cordillera oriental and Occidental. The highest mountain in Peru is called Huascarán, with an elevation of 6,768 meters (22,205 ft.).
Cusco, the historical capital of the Inca Empire is also located in the Andean highland, as well as Peru’s most famous attraction, Machu Picchu. In the Andes are home to camelids such as the llama, alpaca, guanaco and vicuña in the highlands, as well as jaguars, spectacled bears and tapirs on the eastern slopes. You can also find a variety of birds including the Puba Ibis, hummingbirds and the Andean condor soaring above Cordillera blanca and huayhuash.
The Amazon covers more than 60% of Peru and reaches between 80 meters (263 ft.) and 3,800 meters (12,467 ft.) above sea level. This region contains many rivers, including the Marañón, Ucayali and Urubamba. The Amazon in Peru is one of the most diverse areas in the world, and home to an amazingly big variety of birds, monkeys, turtles, jaguars, fish, caiman, frogs and many other animals.
With three different natural regions, the desert coast, the Andes and the jungle, the climate of Peru is very diverse, with a large variety of microclimates, including 28 of the 32 world climates. Being a tropical country, the general climate is mild, with little variation between winter and summer.
History of Peru
The arrival of the first man on the American continent is subject to debate within the scientific community. It is considered that America was populated by Asian immigrants in 13,500 BC, across the Beringian land bridge, the passage between eastern Siberia and Alaska now covered by the sea and known as the Bering Strait. In those times during the last glacial period, ocean levels dropped about 150 meters / 500 ft (due to the concentration of frozen water increasing great ice sheets), causing a connection between Asia and North America.
The Man of Lauricocha (10,000 ac) is considered the first human remains in Peru, found in the eastern slopes of the Andes in the cavern of Lauricocha 3,900 meters (12,800 ft) a.s.l., near the city of Huánuco (central Peru).
The oldest urban center in the Americas appears in Caral 200 km (124 mi) north of Lima on the Peruvian coast, dating 3,000 BC.
Chronology of the major pre-Inca civilizations in Peru:
Inca Empire From (1,200 to 1,533)
According to legend Manco Capac and his sister (and wife) Mama Occllo born from the foam of Lake Titicaca. Their father, Inti or Sun God, gave them a gold staff with the mission to found the capital of the future empire in the place where the sacred staff sank into the earth, which happened in the valley of the Huatanay river in Qosqo (navel of the world – Cuzco in Spanish).
Historically, there is no certainty about the origin of the Incas. The most commonly accepted hypothesis is the displacement of the elites of the Tiahuanaco civilization from the Titicaca Lake to the north to escape sudden invasions.
Spanish Conquest (1526 – 1572)
In 1526, the Spanish arrived in Peru. Led by Francisco Pizarro, Spanish colonists made their appearance just after a long civil war between two rival Inca kings, which served to weakened the Inca’s defenses. A series of clashes over the next several decades ended with the Spanish execution of the last Inca leader, Túpac Amaru, in 1572.
The Spanish forced natives to mine for silver and mercury, for almost no pay. Natives were also coerced to convert to Catholicism. In many cases, whole tribes were driven far from their homes.
By the 18th century, many Peruvians had both European and indigenous ancestors, creating an ethnicity known as mestizos. The Spanish had also imported slaves from Africa, and the slaves and their descendants developed their own subculture within Peru. These new generations of Peruvian natives came to increasingly resent Spain’s governance.
In 1808, Spain’s control over South America weakened when Napoleon ousted King Charles IV from the Spanish throne. Jose de San Martín of Argentina and Simón Bolívar of Venezuela both contributed their forces to help liberate Lima from Spanish control. By 1824, Peru was an independent nation. Political stability, however, did not come quickly. After Peru gained independence, a series of military leaders took control. The first president was not elected until 1872.
Republic until Present Times
It wasn’t until the 1990s that Peru became the true constitutional republic it is today. Throughout much of the 20th and 21st centuries, Peru has grappled with political struggles. One of the most dramatic of which was the Fujimori Regime.
In 2001, Peru got its first true taste of independence and stability as the nation’s leadership came full circle with the election of Peru’s first indigenous president, Alejandro Toledo. The governmental stability and economic growth Peru now enjoys is the result of hard work, a tenacious society, and centuries of effort.